Jan Rudolph Thorbecke
Jan Rudolph Thorbecke was a reformer creating the dutch constitution for democracy, giving less power to the king, and more to the parliament. Due to the international unrest in 1848, King William II decided to form a committee for revision of the constitution, and Thorbecke was appointed as the head of that committee. The changes, which were virtually all created by Thorbecke, were grudgingly approved by the parliament. The most important changes were those limiting of the powers of the monarch, introducing direct elections, establishing liberty of religion, and strengthening the powers of the parliament and the ministers. The new constitution was proclaimed on November 3, 1848.